Tamils must not forget they are the Shiva Murugan Pillaiyar Vishnu Brahma people


சிவன் முருகன் நந்தி ரிஷபம் காளை ஓரியன் ஆரியன் சுமேரியன் J Type haplogroups Tamil Vezh Velir people.

விவசாயம் சைவம் வைணவம் ஆரியம் ஓரியன் ஓரை சுப ஓரை பஞ்சாங்கம் தமிழர் தொடர்பு மதம்.

Mathieson et al. (2015) tested the Y-DNA of 13 Early Neolithic farmers from the Barcın site (6500-6200 BCE) in north-western Anatolia, and only one of them belonged to haplogroup J2a. Lazaridis et al. (2016) tested 44 ancient Near Eastern samples, including Neolithic farmers from Jordan and western Iran, but only the above-mentioned sample from Mesolithic Iran belonged to J2. Likewise, over 100 Y-DNA samples have been tested from Neolithic Europe, covering most of the important cultures, and only two J2 sample was found, in the Sopot and Proto-Lengyel cultures in Hungary, dating from 7,000 years ago. J2 was also absent from all Chalcolithic and Bronze Age Indo-European cultures, apart from one J2a1b sample in Hungary dating from the end of the Bronze Age (c. 1150 BCE, see Gamba et al. 2014), in the minor Kyjatice culture, an offshoot of the Urnfield culture, which differs from typical Indo-European cultures by its use of cremation instead of single-grave burials.

No Neolithic sample from Central or South Asia has been tested to date, but the present geographic distribution of haplogroup J2 suggests that it could initially have dispersed during the Neolithic from the Zagros mountains and northern Mesopotamia across the Iranian plateau to South Asia and Central Asia, and across the Caucasus to Russia (Volga-Ural). The first expansion probably correlated with the diffusion of domesticated of cattle and goats (starting c. 8000-9000 BCE), rather than with the development of cereal agriculture in the Levant.

A second expansion would have occured with the advent of metallurgy. J2 could have been the main paternal lineage of the Kura-Araxes culture (Late Copper to Early Bronze Age), which expanded from the southern Caucasus toward northern Mesopotamia and the Levant. After that J2 could have propagated through Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean with the rise of early civilizations during the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age.

Quite a few ancient Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilisations flourished in territories where J2 lineages were preponderant. This is the case of the Hattians, the Hurrians, the Etruscans, the Minoans, the Greeks, the Phoenicians (and their Carthaginian offshoot), the Israelites, and to a lower extent also the Romans, the Assyrians and the Persians. All the great seafaringcivilisations from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age were dominated by J2 men.

There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship. The oldest evidence of a cult of the bull can be traced back to Neolithic central Anatolia, notably at the sites of Çatalhöyük and Alaca Höyük. Bull depictions are omnipresent in Minoan frescos and ceramics in Crete. Bull-masked terracotta figurines and bull-horned stone altars have been found in Cyprus (dating back as far as the Neolithic, the first presumed expansion of J2 from West Asia). The Hattians, Sumerians, Babylonians, Canaaites, and Carthaginians all had bull deities (in contrast with Indo-European or East Asian religions). The sacred bull of Hinduism, Nandi, present in all temples dedicated to Shiva or Parvati, does not have an Indo-European origin, but can be traced back to Indus Valley civilisation. Minoan Crete, Hittite Anatolia, the Levant, Bactria and the Indus Valley also shared a tradition of bull leaping, the ritual of dodging the charge of a bull. It survives today in the traditional bullfighting of Andalusia in Spain and Provence in France, two regions with a high percentage of J2 lineages.

J2a in Central & South Asia: the Harappan and Oxus Civilizations
Within the Indian subcontinent, J2a peaks at frequencies of 15-25% around the Indo-Pakistani border, from Punjab to Gujarat and Sindh. This region matches exactly the confines of the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harappan Civilisation, that existed from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE and which practised bull worship like other J2a civilizations.

J2. M172.
The J2 subclade is similar in distribution to J1, but it is typically present at a higher frequency.  J2 is distinguished from J1 by a lower frequency in Arab populations and the near absence in Africa.  The J2 subclade is highest in Anatolia and prominent in Mesopotamia and the Levant – all areas that served as centers of agricultural revolution.  J2 is common among Turkish, Kurdish and Jewish populations and significant frequencies are found in the Caucasus, Iran, and Southcentral Asia.  TMRCA estimates for this haplogroup range from 4-15kya.  J2 may be an important Y-chromosome lineage that was part of the demic diffusion and introduction of new agricultural practices into Europe from the Middle East and Anatolia during the Neolithic period.  Anatolia could represent a Mesolithic pocket of the J2 subclade, which spread later to Europe in the Neolithic-Holocene periods (10kya) and subsequently featured in the emergence and progress of the Bronze Age (5kya).  Prominent European areas of J2 abundance include the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, the Balkans and Greece.  An interesting general feature is that J2 frequencies drop off considerably in the Northward direction.  From the Balkan Peninsula, there is a drop in abundance moving into and beyond the Carpathian Mountain countries of Ukraine, Romania, and Hungary.  A similar sharp drop-off between Nepal and Tibet is attributed to the geographic barrier of the Himalayan Mountains.  In Russia, the J2 subclade is more frequent than J1, but because it is much lower than the neighboring Caucasus region (e.g. Georgia, Azerbaijan) to the South, there appears to be infrequent patrilineal gene flow from the Caucasus to Russia.  The Caucasus Mountain Range may have been an effective barrier separating Russia to the North and the Caucasus to the South.  See Figure 6 for the sites of these mountains.  Tthe diffusion of the J2 subclade into Europe may have been by mediated by the Mediterranean Sea.  The J2 subclade is abundant on several Mediterranean Islands: Crete, Cyprus, Malta, Sicily, Sardinia and Korčula (Croatia). The frequency of J haplogroups can distinguish Mediterranean groups (North Africa) (Near East/Arabs) (Central/East/Lebanon) (West).  Similarly, using STR data, three groups can be revealed (North African)(Arab/Palestinians)(Mediterranean/Italy/Sardinia). The J2 chromosomes in Crete are more similar to those found in Anatolia than those found in Greece when the DYS413 and other STR data are taken into account.  This shows that there are sufficient genetic differences to differentiate the populations and it may represent multiple episodes of J subclade expansion and dispersal. The J2 subclade is abundant in Iran (30%), known throughout much of history as Persia.  Studies support the introduction of this subclade here from Anatolia, with less contribution from the East in the direction of Pakistan. The barriers presented by the Hindu Kush mountains in Pakistan and deserts in Iran, may have limited gene flow from the East. The attraction of the fertile Mesopotamian valley may have favored the migration from Anatolia in the West, thus producing a general West to East migration pattern and spread of J2 into Iran.  A genetic separation between the North and South of Iran may have also been aided by the deserts separating these regions.  Furthermore, cultural alliances between Anatolia and Persia have been strong as exemplified by Babylonian, Assyrian, Persian and Ottoman Empires, lending support to the idea that there was a strong connection from Turkey, through Iraq to South Iran.  It is quite possible that these empires aided the dissemination of Haplogroup J. The J2 subclade is abundant in India (2-20%), and its frequency peaks in the Northwest region.  Anatolia is most likely the source of this subclade in India, again consistent with the West to East flow of J2.  The date of this invasion points to a period during or after the Neolithic era.  J2 lineage is also found in SW India with an interesting frequency trend: a higher fraction of J2 in the higher castes and decreasing amounts in lower castes. The J2a subclade is present in the Middle East and Southcentral Asia (~4%), the latter of which includes India and Nepal.  In India, there is a general trend for increased J2a frequency in higher castes. It has also been found in Crete (1-2%).

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