Wednesday, 17 October 2018

Sivas Province Sivas City Sivas District in Turkey Turkmenistan on Silk Road Hittite Tamil Kings times Ottaman Ottagam Magan Ottaman Sulei Man Sulei Magan Shiva Muslims Shia Muslims Hindu Link

The route of the Silk Road and the Persian Royal Road run through Sivas.

According to the written historical sources, the region of Sivas province was first inhabited during the period of the Hittitecivilization by the beginning of 2000 BC and became an important settlement. The region then encountered the reign of ArmenianRomanByzantineSeljukian, and Ottomancivilizations.

 SivasProvince (TurkishSivas İli), (Kurdish: Sêwas) is a province of Turkey. It is largely located at the eastern part of the Central Anatolia region of Turkey; it is the second largest province in Turkey by territory. Its adjacent provinces are Yozgat to the west, Kayseri to the southwest, Kahramanmaraş to the south, Malatya to the southeast, Erzincanto the east, Giresun to the northeast, and Orduto the north. Its capital is Sivas.

Historically the province produced alumcoppersilverironcoalasbestosarsenic, and salt.[2] Alfalfa was also produced in the area.[3]

Sivas (Latin and GreekSebastiaSebasteaSebasteiaSebaste, Σεβάστεια, Σεβαστή; ArmenianՍեբաստիա) is a city in central Turkey and the seat of Sivas Province

Excavations at a mound known as Topraktepeindicate Hittite settlement in the area as early as 2600 BC,[citation needed] though little is known of Sivas' history prior to its emergence in the Roman period. In 64 BC as part of his reorganization of Asia Minor after the Third Mithridatic WarPompey the Great founded a city on the site called "Megalopolis".[5]Numismatic evidence suggests that Megalopolis changed its name in the last years of the 1st century BC to "Sebaste", which is the feminine form of the Greek name corresponding to Augustus. The name "Sivas" is the Turkish version deriving from the name Sebasteia, as the city was known during the late Roman (Byzantine) empire. Sebasteia became the capital of the province of Armenia Minor under the emperor Diocletian, was a town of some importance in the early history of the Christian Church; in the 4th century it was the home of Saint Blaise and Saint Peter of Sebaste, bishops of the town, and of Eustathius, one of the early founders of monasticism in Asia Minor. It was also the place of martyrdom of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste, also 4th century. Justinian I had a fortified wall around it rebuilt in the 6th century.

Sebasteia was the first important city to be plundered by Turkish tribes in 1059.[6] In August of that year the troops of various emirs gathered before the unwalled city. Initially they hesitated to sack it, mistaking that the domes of the several Christian churches were tents of military camps. As soon as they realized that the city was defenceless they burned it for eight days, slaughtered a large part of its population and took many prisoners.[7] The city came under the domain of Turkmen Danishmend dynasty (1071–1174) after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. After the death of Danişmend Gazi, Sivas passed to Nizamettin Yağıbasan who won it after a struggle with Danişmend Gazi's successors. In 1174, the city was captured by Seljuk ruler Kilij Arslan II and periodically served as capital of the Seljuk empire along with Konya. Under Seljuk rule, Sivas was an important center of trade along the silk roadand site of a citadel, along with mosques and madrasahs (Islamic educational institutions), four of which survive today and one of which houses the Sivas Museum. Then it passed to the IlkhanidsEretna and Kadı Burhanettin.

The city was acquired by Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I (1389–1402). In 1398, Tamerlaneswept into the area and his forces destroyed the city in 1400, after which it was recaptured by the Ottomans in 1408.[8] Under the Ottomans, Sivas served as the administrative center of the province of Rum until about the late 19th century. The Armenian Apostolic Church maintained six Armenian churches in Sivas, being the Meryemana, Surp Sarkis, Surp Minas, Surp Prgitsh, Surp Hagop, Surp Kevork, four monasteries Surp Nschan, Surp Hreshdagabed, Surp Anabad, Surp Hntragadar, an Armenian Apostolic orphanage and several schools. The Armenian Catholic Church and the Latins also had one church and a metropolitan of Sebastea.[9] Two Protestant churches and eight, mostly German- and American-staffed, schools. During the genocide against Armenians as well as against Greek Christians from July 5, 1915 onwards, the Christian community of Sivas was exterminated by deportations and mass executions.[10]

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